Direct Material Quantity Variance Formula and Calculation

The production manager was disappointed to receive the monthly performance report revealing actual material cost of $369,000. The material price variance is adverse because the actual price is higher than the standard. The following sections explain how management can assess potential causes for a favorable or adverse material price variance and devise a suitable response to the variation. aims to provide the best accounting and finance education for students, professionals, teachers, and business owners. The articles and research support materials available on this site are educational and are not intended to be investment or tax advice. All such information is provided solely for convenience purposes only and all users thereof should be guided accordingly.

Review the following graphic and notice that more is spent on actual variable factory overhead than is applied based on standard rates. This scenario produces unfavorable variances (also known as “underapplied overhead” since not all that is spent is applied to production). As monies are spent on overhead (wages, utilization of supplies, etc.), the cost (xx) is transferred to the Factory Overhead account.

  • Any
    unexpected increase in steel prices will likely cause significant
    unfavorable materials price variances, which will lead to lower
  • This is an unfavorable outcome because the actual price for materials was more than the standard price.
  • The following sections explain how management can assess potential causes for a favorable or adverse material price variance and devise a suitable response to the variation.
  • If the total actual cost is higher than the total standard cost, the variance is unfavorable since the company paid more than what it expected to pay.

If there is no difference between the actual quantity used and the standard quantity, the outcome will be zero, and no variance exists. Angro Limited, a single product American company, employs a proper standard costing system. The normal wastage and inefficiencies are taken into account while setting direct materials price and quantity standards. Variances are calculated and reported at regular intervals to ensure the quick remedial actions against any unfavorable occurrence.

Direct Labor Variances

The direct material variance is the difference between the standard cost of materials resulting from production activities and the actual costs incurred. The direct material variance is comprised of two other variances, which are noted below. It is customary to calculate and report these two variances separately, so that management can determine if variances are caused by purchasing issues or manufacturing problems.

  • This illustration presumes that all raw materials purchased are put into production.
  • To evaluate the price difference, you’re looking for a different accounting formula called the direct material price variance.
  • In general, the production department of the company is responsible for direct materials quantity variance since it has direct control over the usage of materials.
  • From the accounting records, we know that the company purchased and used in production 6,800 BF of lumber to make 1,620 bodies.
  • Excessive loss of raw materials during production, called abnormal spoilage, is cause for concern, however.

Now that we know the standard quantity, we can use the DMQV formula to calculate the variance. The first step in the calculation is to figure out how much stuffing material should be used to manufacture 9000 teddy bears (standard quantity). In closing this discussion of standards and variances, be mindful that care should be taken in examining variances.

Question Submitted

The logic for direct labor variances is very similar to that of direct material. The total variance for direct labor is found by comparing actual direct labor cost to standard direct labor cost. If actual cost exceeds standard cost, the resulting variances are unfavorable and vice versa. The overall labor variance could result from any combination of having paid laborers at rates equal to, above, or below standard rates, and using more or less direct labor hours than anticipated. Actual and standard quantities and prices are given in the following table for direct materials to produce 1,000 units.

One must consider the circumstances under which the variances resulted and the materiality of amounts involved. For example, buying raw materials of superior quality (at higher than anticipated prices) may be offset by reduction in waste and spoilage. Blue Rail’s very favorable labor rate variance resulted from using inexperienced, less expensive labor. Was this the reason for the unfavorable outcomes in efficiency and volume? The challenge for a good manager is to take the variance information, examine the root causes, and take necessary corrective measures to fine tune business operations.

Direct Materials Quantity Variance

If the actual quantity of materials used is less than the standard quantity used at the actual production output level, the variance will be a favorable variance. A favorable outcome means you used fewer materials than anticipated, to make the actual number of production units. If, however, the actual quantity of materials used is greater than the standard quantity used at the actual production output level, the variance will be unfavorable. An unfavorable outcome means you used more materials than anticipated to make the actual number of production units. If a company’s actual quantity used exceeds the standard allowed, then the direct materials quantity variance will be unfavorable.

Overview: What is a materials quantity variance?

The material quantity variance is also known as the material usage variance and the material yield variance. The actual quantity used can differ from the standard quantity because of improved efficiencies in production, carelessness or inefficiencies in production, or poor estimation when creating the standard usage. One more, the favorable variance may arise from the purchase of low-quality material. The purchasing department and production manager need to do proper inspect all the material during delivery.

Figure 10.35 shows the connection between the direct materials price variance and direct materials quantity variance to total direct materials cost variance. Figure 8.3 shows the connection between the direct materials price variance and direct materials quantity variance to total direct materials cost variance. The standard price of materials purchased by Angro is $2.00 per kg and standard quantity of materials allowed to produce a unit of product is 1.5kg. During December 2020, 5,000 units were produced using 8,000kgs of direct materials. Calculate direct materials quantity variance and also indicate whether it is favorable or unfavorable. Like direct materials price variance, this variance may be favorable or unfavorable.

The actual price must exceed the standard price because the material price variance is adverse. The standard price of $100 per bag was allowed in the budget, but the purchase manager was able to source the materials from a cheaper supplier at the cost of $80 per bag. Direct Material Price Variance (DMPV) shows the amount by which the total cost of raw materials has deviated from the planned cost as a result of a price change over a period. Standard direct material usage refers to the amount of materials allowed to be used per unit produced. In a multi-product company, the total quantity variance is divided over each of the products manufactured. Such variance amounts are generally reported as decreases (unfavorable) or increases (favorable) in income, with the standard cost going to the Work in Process Inventory account.

How much is the direct materials quantity variance of Prime Furniture Inc. for the month of December 2022? Variance analysis should also be performed to evaluate spending and utilization for factory overhead. Overhead variances are a bit more challenging to calculate and evaluate. As a result, the techniques for factory overhead evaluation vary considerably from company to company. To begin, recall that overhead has both variable and fixed components (unlike direct labor and direct material that are exclusively variable in nature).